VA-API  2.13.0.pre1
Classes | Typedefs | Enumerations | Functions
Protected content API

Classes

struct  VAProtectedSessionBuffer
 Input/Output buffer of VAProtectedSessionExecuteBuffer. More...
 
struct  VAProtectedSessionExecuteBuffer
 Buffer for vaProtectedSessionExecute() More...
 

Typedefs

typedef VAGenericID VAProtectedSessionID
 

Enumerations

enum  VA_TEE_EXECUTE_FUNCTION_ID
 TEE Execucte Function ID.
 

Functions

VAStatus vaCreateProtectedSession (VADisplay dpy, VAConfigID config_id, VAProtectedSessionID *protected_session)
 Create a protected session. More...
 
VAStatus vaDestroyProtectedSession (VADisplay dpy, VAProtectedSessionID protected_session)
 Destroy a protected session. More...
 
VAStatus vaAttachProtectedSession (VADisplay dpy, VAGenericID id, VAProtectedSessionID protected_session)
 Attach a protected content session to VA context. More...
 
VAStatus vaDetachProtectedSession (VADisplay dpy, VAGenericID id)
 Detach the protected content session from the VA context. More...
 
VAStatus vaProtectedSessionExecute (VADisplay dpy, VAProtectedSessionID protected_session, VABufferID buf_id)
 Execute provides a general mechanism for TEE client tasks execution. More...
 

Detailed Description

Prolouge

Video streaming is ubiquitous and the support for video streaming is widely available across client open systems such as PCs, MACs, Chromebooks etc. and closed systems such as settop box, smart TVs, DVDs etc. By default, video streaming is not considered premium due to various constraints such as resolution, quality, production cost etc. but recently streaming of premium video(1080p+) has become norm. The streaming of premium video in open systems such as PCs, MACs, Chromebooks etc. makes video particularly susceptible to piracy (due to non-video playback usages of such systems) resulting in millions of dollars of loss to content creators.

Digital Rights Management(DRM) has been proposed to stop piracy of premium video streams across a wide spectrum. There are some known open/closed DRM standards such as Widevine by Google, PlayReady by Microsoft, FairPlay by Apple, Merlin by Sony, etc... Each DRM standard has its properties but all DRM standards support a common mechanism. This common mechanism involves cryptographical method for authenticating the client system, delivering bitstream and required cryptographic assets to client system and then cryptographically processing bitstream in client system. The cryptographic methods used in these steps are asymmetric such as RSA, DH etc. and symmetric such as AES CTR, CBC etc. encryption mechanisms. The authentication of client system, delivery of bitstream and cryptographic assets to client system is performed using asymmetric cryptographic mechanism while bitstream is encrypted and processed using symmetric cryptographic. In DRM world, authentication of client system, delivery of bitstream and required cryptographic assets to client system is loosely called provisioning and license acquisition while the processing of cryptographically secure bitstream is divided as video decryption/decoding, audio decryption/playback, video display. Besides DRM standards, Video/Audio bitstream encryption standard such as Common Encryption Standard(CENC) provides a mechanism to normalize bitstream encryption methods across vendors while providing flexibility.

Pipeline

Most DRM standards execute the following deep pipeline to playback contents on client systems from streaming servers - provisioning uses provisioning servers, licence aquisition uses license servers, video bitstream delivery uses content servers and decryption/decoding, audio bitstream delivery uses content servers and decyption/playback, display/playback. The system level HWDRM sequence diagram is following -

HWDRM sequence diagram

and HWDRM pipeline view is following -

HWDRM pipeline view

Protected Content APIs

The LibVA Protected APIs are designed to enable DRM capabilities or facilitate isolated communicaiton with TEE. The VAEntrypointProtectedTEEComm is to define interfaces for Application to TEE direct communication to perform various TEE centric operations such as standalone provisioning of platform at factory or provisioning TEE for other usages, providing TEE capabilities etc. The VAEntrypointProtectedContent is to define interfaces for protected video playback using HWDRM. This entry point co-ordinates assets across TEE/GPU/Display for HWDRM playback.

The difference between Protected Content and Protected TEE Communication is that Protected Content Entrypoint does not provide isolated entry point for TEE and invokes TEE only from HWDRM perspective.

Protected Content Entrypoint The most of DRM standards execute following deep pipeline to playback contents on client systems from streaming servers - provisioning uses provisioning servers, licence aquisition uses license servers, video bitstream delivery uses content servers and decryption/decoding, audio bitstream delivery uses content servers and decyption/playback, display/playback.

The Provisioning and License aquisition implementations are Independent Hardware Vendor (IHV) specific but most IHVs use some form of Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) to prepare client platform or system for DRM content playback. The provisioning operations use provisioning servers (as instructed in DRM standard) and client system TEE. The communication between provisioning servers and client system TEE uses asymmetic cryptographic mechanism. This step provides a way to establish root-of-trust between client system and streaming servers. Once root-of-trust is established then client system requests for license aquisition for a particular streaming title. The license aquisition involves communication between licensing servers and TEE using asymmetic cryptographic mechanism. At end of this step, client system TEE has required assets to decrypt/decode. Although these communication does not direcly involve video aspect of GPU but facilitate GPU required assets to playback premium contents.

To support DRM standard requirements in playback pipeline, OSes and HWs incorporate various methods to protect full playback pipeline. These methods of protection could be SW based or HW based. The SW based protection mechanism of DRMs is called SWDRM while HW based protection mechanism is called HWDRM. There is no previous support in LibVA to support either DRM mechanism.

For DRM capabilities, APIs inolve creation of protected session to communicate with TEE and then using these protected sessions to process video/audio data. The philophashy behind these API is to leverage existing LibVA infrastructure as much as possible.

Note: TEE could be any secure HW device such as ME-FW or FPGA Secure Enclave or NPU Secure Enclave. There are 2 concepts here – TEE Type such as ME-FW or FPGA or NPU; TEE Type Client such as for AMT or HDCP or something else etc.

Detailed Description

The Protected content API provides a general mechanism for opening protected session with TEE and if required then Priming GPU/Display. The behavior of protected session API depends on parameterization/ configuration of protected session. Just for TEE tasks, protected session is parameterized/configured as TEE Communication while for HWDRM, protected session is parameterized/confgured as Protected Content.

TEE Communication Entrypoint With TEE Communication parameterization/configuration, client executes TEE workloads in TEE with TEE Communication protected session.

Protected Content Entrypoint With Protected Content parameterization/configuration, client executes HWDRM playback workloads HW accelerating protected video content decryption/decoding with protected content session.

Before calling vaCreateProtectedSession, VAConfigID is obtained using existing libva mechanism to determine configuration parameters of protected session. The VAConfigID is determined in this way so that Protected Session implementation aligns with existing libva implementation. After obtaining VAConfigID, Protected Session needs to be created but note this is a session and not a context. Refer VAProtectedSessionID for more details.

Note:- Protected session represents session object that has all security information needed for Secure Enclave to operate certain operations.

Priming

Priming is used to refer various types of initializations. For example, if license acquisition is being performed then priming means that TEE is already provisioned aka TEE has some sort of "cryptographic" whitelist of servers that TEE will use to do license acquisition for video playback. If HWDRM video playback is being performed then priming means that HWDRM eco-system TEE/GPU/Display has proper keys to do proper video playback etc.

Protected content API uses the following paradigm for protected content session:

Query for supported cipher mode, block size, mode

Checking whether protected content is supported can be performed with vaQueryConfigEntrypoints() and the profile argument set to VAProfileProtected. If protected content is supported, then the list of returned entry-points will include VAEntrypointProtectedContent

VAEntrypoint *entrypoints;
int i, num_entrypoints, supportsProtectedContent = 0;
num_entrypoints = vaMaxNumEntrypoints();
entrypoints = malloc(num_entrypoints * sizeof(entrypoints[0]);
&num_entrypoints);
for (i = 0; !supportsProtectedContent && i < num_entrypoints; i++) {
if (entrypoints[i] == VAEntrypointProtectedContent)
supportsProtectedContent = 1;
}

Then, the vaGetConfigAttributes() function is used to query the protected session capabilities.

if ((attribs[1].value & VA_PC_CIPHER_AES) == 0) {
// not find desired cipher algorithm
assert(0);
}
if ((attribs[2].value & VA_PC_BLOCK_SIZE_128) == 0) {
// not find desired block size
assert(0);
}
if ((attribs[3].value & VA_PC_CIPHER_MODE_CBC) == 0) {
// not find desired counter mode
assert(0);
}
if ((attribs[4].value & VA_PC_SAMPLE_TYPE_SUBSAMPLE) == 0) {
// not find desired sample type
assert(0);
}
if ((attribs[5].value & VA_PC_USAGE_WIDEVINE) == 0) {
// not find desired usage
assert(0);
}

Set up a protected content session

TEE Communication Entrypoint The protected content session provides a TEE session that is used to extract TEE information. This information could be used to peform TEE operations.

Protected Content Entrypoint The protected content session can be attached to VA decode/encode/vp context to do decryption/protection in the pipeline. Before creating a protected content session, it needs to create a config first via vaCreateConfig(). Then using this config id to create a protected content session via vaCreateProtectedSession().

The general control flow is demonstrated by the following pseudo-code:

// Create config
VAConfigID config_id;
attribs[0].value = VA_PC_CIPHER_AES;
attribs[1].value = VA_PC_BLOCK_SIZE_128;
attribs[2].value = VA_PC_CIPHER_MODE_CBC;
attribs[3].value = VA_PC_SAMPLE_TYPE_SUBSAMPLE;
attribs[4].value = VA_PC_USAGE_WIDEVINE;
va_status = vaCreateConfig(va_dpy, VAProfileProtected,
VAEntrypointProtectedContent, attribs, 5, &config_id);
CHECK_VASTATUS(va_status, "vaCreateConfig");

Once the config is set up, we can create protected content session via vaCreateProtectedSession().

// Create a protected session
VAProtectedSessionID crypto_session;
va_status = vaCreateProtectedSession(va_dpy, config_id, &crypto_session);
CHECK_VASTATUS(va_status, "vaCreateProtectedSession");

TEE communication via vaProtectedSessionExecute()

TEE Communication Entrypoint App needs to communicate with TEE to get TEE information or prime TEE with information that will be utilized for future TEE operations/tasks.

Protected Content Entrypoint Before starting decryption/encryption operation in GPU, app may need to communicate with TEE to get encrypted assets for Priming HWDRM pipeline for decryption. App need to call vaProtectedSessionExecute() to get this asset. The following pseudo-code demonstrates getting session assets via vaProtectedSessionExecute() as an example.

In this example, the vaCreateBuffer is called with exec_buffer mainly becasue TEE Communication Entrypoint buffers are CPU bound and buffer size is small enough to have extra copy operation without impacting performance.

uint32_t app_id = 0xFF;
VABufferID buffer;
exec_buff.function_id = GET_SESSION_ID;
exec_buff.input.data = nullptr;
exec_buff.input.data_size = 0;
exec_buff.output.data = &app_id;
exec_buff.output.max_data_size = sizeof(app_id);
va_status = vaCreateBuffer(
va_dpy,
crypto_session,
sizeof(exec_buff),
1,
&exec_buff,
&buffer);
va_status = vaProtectedSessionExecute(va_dpy, crypto_session, buffer);
vaDestroyBuffer(va_dpy, buffer);

Attach/Detach protected content session to the VA

context which want to enable/disable decryption/protection

Protected content session is attached to VA decode/encode/vp context to enable protected decoding/encoding/video processing per frame or entire stream. If protected session attached per frame then application has 2 options for decoding/encoding skip processing i.e. accomodating clear frames - 1. Application could do detach after each frame is processed to process clear frame 2. Application could remains attached to decode/ encode session but specify enryption byte length to 0. The video processing does not has option #2 mainly because API does not provide skip processing.

vaAttachProtectedSession(va_dpy, decode_ctx, crypto_session);
foreach (iteration) {
vaBeginPicture(va_dpy, decode_ctx, surface);
...
vaRenderPicture(va_dpy, decode_ctx, &buf_id1, 1);
vaRenderPicture(va_dpy, decode_ctx, &buf_id2, 1);
// Buffer holding encryption parameters, i.e. VAEncryptionParameterBufferType buffer
vaRenderPicture(va_dpy, decode_ctx, &buf_id_enc_param, 1);
...
vaEndPicture(va_dpy, decode_ctx);
}
vaDetachProtectedSession(va_dpy, decode_ctx);

or it could be frame-by-frame attaching/detaching as following:

foreach (iteration) {
if (encrypted)
vaAttachProtectedSession(va_dpy, decode_ctx, crypto_session);
vaBeginPicture(va_dpy, decode_ctx, surface);
...
vaRenderPicture(va_dpy, decode_ctx, &buf_id1, 1);
vaRenderPicture(va_dpy, decode_ctx, &buf_id2, 1);
// Buffer holding encryption parameters, i.e. VAEncryptionParameterBufferType buffer
vaRenderPicture(va_dpy, decode_ctx, &buf_id_enc_param, 1);
...
vaEndPicture(va_dpy, decode_ctx);
if (encrypted)
vaDetachProtectedSession(va_dpy, decode_ctx);
// check encrypted variable for next frame
}

Typedef Documentation

◆ VAProtectedSessionID

ProtectedSessions and Contexts

According to VAContextID, Context represents a "virtual" video decode, encode or video processing pipeline. Surfaces are render targets for a given context. The data in the surfaces are not accessible to the client except if derived image is supported and the internal data format of the surface is implementation specific. Application can create a video decode, encode or processing context which represents a "virtualized" hardware device.

Since Protected Session does not virtualize any HW device or build any pipeline but rather accessorize existing virtualized HW device or pipeline to operate in protected mode so we decided to create separate function. Beside this, a virtualized HW device or pipeline could own several protected sessions and operate in those protected modes without ever re-creating virtualization of HW device or re-building HW pipeline (an unique protected environment multiplexing capability in Intel HW).

The returned protected_session represents a notion of Host and TEE clients while representing protection status in GPU and Display.

Both contexts and protected sessions are identified by unique IDs and its implementation specific internals are kept opaque to the clients

Function Documentation

◆ vaAttachProtectedSession()

VAStatus vaAttachProtectedSession ( VADisplay  dpy,
VAGenericID  id,
VAProtectedSessionID  protected_session 
)

Attach a protected content session to VA context.

Attach a protected content session to the context to enable decryption/protection

Parameters
[in]dpythe VA display
[in]idthe VA decode/encode/vp context
[in]protected_sessionthe protected session to attach

◆ vaCreateProtectedSession()

VAStatus vaCreateProtectedSession ( VADisplay  dpy,
VAConfigID  config_id,
VAProtectedSessionID protected_session 
)

Create a protected session.

Create a protected session

Parameters
[in]dpythe VA display
[in]config_idconfiguration for the protected session
[out]protected_sessioncreated protected session id upon return

◆ vaDestroyProtectedSession()

VAStatus vaDestroyProtectedSession ( VADisplay  dpy,
VAProtectedSessionID  protected_session 
)

Destroy a protected session.

Destroy a protected session

Parameters
[in]dpythe VA display
[in]protected_sessionprotected session to be destroyed

◆ vaDetachProtectedSession()

VAStatus vaDetachProtectedSession ( VADisplay  dpy,
VAGenericID  id 
)

Detach the protected content session from the VA context.

Detach protected content session of the context to disable decryption/protection

Parameters
[in]dpythe VA display
[in]idTEE client id to be detached

◆ vaProtectedSessionExecute()

VAStatus vaProtectedSessionExecute ( VADisplay  dpy,
VAProtectedSessionID  protected_session,
VABufferID  buf_id 
)

Execute provides a general mechanism for TEE client tasks execution.

vaProtectedSessionExecute provides a mechanism for TEE clients to execute specific tasks. The implementation may differ between IHVs. This is a synchronous API.

Parameters
[in]dpythe VA display
[in]protected_sessionthe protected session
[in,out]buf_idthe VA buffer