Clang 15.0.0git (In-Progress) Release Notes

Written by the LLVM Team

Warning

These are in-progress notes for the upcoming Clang 15 release. Release notes for previous releases can be found on the Download Page.

Introduction

This document contains the release notes for the Clang C/C++/Objective-C frontend, part of the LLVM Compiler Infrastructure, release 15.0.0git. Here we describe the status of Clang in some detail, including major improvements from the previous release and new feature work. For the general LLVM release notes, see the LLVM documentation. All LLVM releases may be downloaded from the LLVM releases web site.

For more information about Clang or LLVM, including information about the latest release, please see the Clang Web Site or the LLVM Web Site.

Note that if you are reading this file from a Git checkout or the main Clang web page, this document applies to the next release, not the current one. To see the release notes for a specific release, please see the releases page.

What’s New in Clang 15.0.0git?

Some of the major new features and improvements to Clang are listed here. Generic improvements to Clang as a whole or to its underlying infrastructure are described first, followed by language-specific sections with improvements to Clang’s support for those languages.

Major New Features

  • Clang now supports the -fzero-call-used-regs feature for x86. The purpose of this feature is to limit Return-Oriented Programming (ROP) exploits and information leakage. It works by zeroing out a selected class of registers before function return — e.g., all GPRs that are used within the function. There is an analogous zero_call_used_regs attribute to allow for finer control of this feature.

  • Clang now supports randomizing structure layout in C. This feature is a compile-time hardening technique, making it more difficult for an attacker to retrieve data from structures. Specify randomization with the randomize_layout attribute. The corresponding no_randomize_layout attribute can be used to turn the feature off.

    A seed value is required to enable randomization, and is deterministic based on a seed value. Use the -frandomize-layout-seed= or -frandomize-layout-seed-file= flags.

    Note

    Randomizing structure layout is a C-only feature.

Bug Fixes

  • CXXNewExpr::getArraySize() previously returned a llvm::Optional wrapping a nullptr when the CXXNewExpr did not have an array size expression. This was fixed and ::getArraySize() will now always either return None or a llvm::Optional wrapping a valid Expr*. This fixes Issue 53742.

  • We now ignore full expressions when traversing cast subexpressions. This fixes Issue 53044.

  • Allow -Wno-gnu to silence GNU extension diagnostics for pointer arithmetic diagnostics. Fixes Issue 54444.

  • Placeholder constraints, as in Concept auto x = f();, were not checked when modifiers like auto& or auto** were added. These constraints are now checked. This fixes Issue 53911 and Issue 54443.

  • Previously invalid member variables with template parameters would crash clang. Now fixed by setting identifiers for them. This fixes Issue 28475 (PR28101).

  • Now allow the restrict and _Atomic qualifiers to be used in conjunction with __auto_type to match the behavior in GCC. This fixes Issue 53652.

  • No longer crash when specifying a variably-modified parameter type in a function with the naked attribute. This fixes Issue 50541.

  • Allow multiple #pragma weak directives to name the same undeclared (if an alias, target) identifier instead of only processing one such #pragma weak per identifier. Fixes Issue 28985.

  • Assignment expressions in C11 and later mode now properly strip the _Atomic qualifier when determining the type of the assignment expression. Fixes Issue 48742.

  • Improved the diagnostic when accessing a member of an atomic structure or union object in C; was previously an unhelpful error, but now issues a -Watomic-access warning which defaults to an error. Fixes Issue 54563.

  • Unevaluated lambdas in dependant contexts no longer result in clang crashing. This fixes Issues 50376, 51414, 51416, and 51641.

  • The builtin function __builtin_dump_struct would crash clang when the target struct contains a bitfield. It now correctly handles bitfields. This fixes Issue Issue 54462.

  • Statement expressions are now disabled in default arguments in general. This fixes Issue Issue 53488.

  • According to CWG 1394 and C++20 [dcl.fct.def.general]p2, Clang should not diagnose incomplete types in function definitions if the function body is “= delete;”. This fixes Issue Issue 52802.

  • Unknown type attributes with a [[]] spelling are no longer diagnosed twice. This fixes Issue Issue 54817.

  • Clang should no longer incorrectly diagnose a variable declaration inside of a lambda expression that shares the name of a variable in a containing if/while/for/switch init statement as a redeclaration. This fixes Issue 54913.

  • Overload resolution for constrained function templates could use the partial order of constraints to select an overload, even if the parameter types of the functions were different. It now diagnoses this case correctly as an ambiguous call and an error. Fixes Issue 53640.

  • No longer crash when trying to determine whether the controlling expression argument to a generic selection expression has side effects in the case where the expression is result dependent. This fixes Issue 50227.

  • Fixed an assertion when constant evaluating an initializer for a GCC/Clang floating-point vector type when the width of the initialization is exactly the same as the elements of the vector being initialized. Fixes Issue 50216.

  • Fixed a crash when the __bf16 type is used such that its size or alignment is calculated on a target which does not support that type. This fixes Issue 50171.

  • Fixed a false positive diagnostic about an unevaluated expression having no side effects when the expression is of VLA type and is an operand of the sizeof operator. Fixes Issue 48010.

  • Fixed a false positive diagnostic about scoped enumerations being a C++11 extension in C mode. A scoped enumeration’s enumerators cannot be named in C because there is no way to fully qualify the enumerator name, so this “extension” was unintentional and useless. This fixes Issue 42372.

  • Now correctly diagnose use of // comments in gnu89 mode (which matches the behavior of GCC) in addition to c89 mode. This fixes Issue 18427.

Improvements to Clang’s diagnostics

  • -Wliteral-range will warn on floating-point equality comparisons with constants that are not representable in a casted value. For example, (float) f == 0.1 is always false.

  • -Winline-namespace-reopened-noninline now takes into account that the inline keyword must appear on the original but not necessarily all extension definitions of an inline namespace and therefore points its note at the original definition. This fixes Issue 50794 (PR51452).

  • -Wunused-but-set-variable now also warns if the variable is only used by unary operators.

  • -Wunused-variable no longer warn for references extending the lifetime of temporaries with side effects. This fixes Issue 54489.

  • Modified the behavior of -Wstrict-prototypes and added a new, related diagnostic -Wdeprecated-non-prototype. The strict prototypes warning will now only diagnose deprecated declarations and definitions of functions without a prototype where the behavior in C2x will remain correct. This diagnostic remains off by default but is now enabled via -pedantic due to it being a deprecation warning. -Wstrict-prototypes has no effect in C2x or when -fno-knr-functions is enabled. -Wdeprecated-non-prototype will diagnose cases where the deprecated declarations or definitions of a function without a prototype will change behavior in C2x. Additionally, it will diagnose calls which pass arguments to a function without a prototype. This warning is enabled only when the -Wdeprecated-non-prototype option is enabled at the function declaration site, which allows a developer to disable the diagnostic for all callers at the point of declaration. This diagnostic is grouped under the -Wstrict-prototypes warning group, but is enabled by default. -Wdeprecated-non-prototype has no effect in C2x or when -fno-knr-functions is enabled.

  • Clang now appropriately issues an error in C when a definition of a function without a prototype and with no arguments is an invalid redeclaration of a function with a prototype. e.g., void f(int); void f() {} is now properly diagnosed.

  • The -Wimplicit-function-declaration warning diagnostic now defaults to an error in C99 and later. Prior to C2x, it may be downgraded to a warning with -Wno-error=implicit-function-declaration, or disabled entirely with -Wno-implicit-function-declaration. As of C2x, support for implicit function declarations has been removed, and the warning options will have no effect.

  • The -Wimplicit-int warning diagnostic now defaults to an error in C99 and later. Prior to C2x, it may be downgraded to a warning with -Wno-error=implicit-int, or disabled entirely with -Wno-implicit-int. As of C2x, support for implicit int has been removed, and the warning options will have no effect. Specifying -Wimplicit-int in C89 mode will now issue warnings instead of being a noop.

  • No longer issue a “declaration specifiers missing, defaulting to int” diagnostic in C89 mode because it is not an extension in C89, it was valid code. The diagnostic has been removed entirely as it did not have a diagnostic group to disable it, but it can be covered wholly by -Wimplicit-int.

  • -Wmisexpect warns when the branch weights collected during profiling conflict with those added by llvm.expect.

Non-comprehensive list of changes in this release

  • Improve __builtin_dump_struct: - Support bitfields in struct and union. - Improve the dump format, dump both bitwidth(if its a bitfield) and field value. - Remove anonymous tag locations. - Beautify dump format, add indent for nested struct and struct members.

  • Previously disabled sanitizer options now enabled by default: - ASAN_OPTIONS=detect_stack_use_after_return=1 (only on Linux). - MSAN_OPTIONS=poison_in_dtor=1.

New Compiler Flags

  • Added the -fno-knr-functions flag to allow users to opt into the C2x behavior where a function with an empty parameter list is treated as though the parameter list were void. There is no -fknr-functions or -fno-no-knr-functions flag; this feature cannot be disabled in language modes where it is required, such as C++ or C2x.

Deprecated Compiler Flags

Modified Compiler Flags

Removed Compiler Flags

  • Removed the -fno-concept-satisfaction-caching flag. The flag was added at the time when the draft of C++20 standard did not permit caching of atomic constraints. The final standard permits such caching, see WG21 P2104R0.

New Pragmas in Clang

Attribute Changes in Clang

  • Attributes loaded as clang plugins which are sensitive to LangOpts must now override acceptsLangOpts instead of diagLangOpts. Returning false will produce a generic “attribute ignored” diagnostic, as with clang’s built-in attributes. If plugins want to provide richer diagnostics, they can do so when the attribute is handled instead, e.g. in handleDeclAttribute. (This was changed in order to better support attributes in code completion).

  • __has_cpp_attribute, __has_c_attribute, __has_attribute, and __has_declspec will now macro expand their argument. This causes a change in behavior for code using __has_cpp_attribute(__clang__::attr) (and same for __has_c_attribute) where it would previously expand to 0 for all attributes, but will now issue an error due to the expansion of the predefined __clang__ macro.

  • Added support for parameter pack expansion in clang::annotate.

  • The overloadable attribute can now be written in all of the syntactic locations a declaration attribute may appear. This fixes Issue 53805.

  • Improved namespace attributes handling:

    • Handle GNU attributes before a namespace identifier and subsequent attributes of different kinds.

    • Emit error on GNU attributes for a nested namespace definition.

  • Statement attributes [[clang::noinline]] and [[clang::always_inline]] can be used to control inlining decisions at callsites.

  • #pragma clang attribute push now supports multiple attributes within a single directive.

  • The __declspec(naked) attribute can no longer be written on a member function in Microsoft compatibility mode, matching the behavior of cl.exe.

Windows Support

  • Add support for MSVC-compatible /JMC//JMC- flag in clang-cl (supports X86/X64/ARM/ARM64). /JMC could only be used when /Zi or /Z7 is turned on. With this addition, clang-cl can be used in Visual Studio for the JustMyCode feature. Note, you may need to manually add /JMC as additional compile options in the Visual Studio since it currently assumes clang-cl does not support /JMC.

C Language Changes in Clang

C2x Feature Support

C++ Language Changes in Clang

  • Improved -O0 code generation for calls to std::move, std::forward, std::move_if_noexcept, std::addressof, and std::as_const. These are now treated as compiler builtins and implemented directly, rather than instantiating the definition from the standard library.

  • Fixed mangling of nested dependent names such as T::a::b, where T is a template parameter, to conform to the Itanium C++ ABI and be compatible with GCC. This breaks binary compatibility with code compiled with earlier versions of clang; use the -fclang-abi-compat=14 option to get the old mangling.

C++20 Feature Support

  • Diagnose consteval and constexpr issues that happen at namespace scope. This partially addresses Issue 51593.

  • No longer attempt to evaluate a consteval UDL function call at runtime when it is called through a template instantiation. This fixes Issue 54578.

  • Implemented __builtin_source_location() which enables library support for std::source_location.

  • The mangling scheme for C++20 modules has incompatibly changed. The initial mangling was discovered not to be reversible, and the weak ownership design decision did not give the backwards compatibility that was hoped for. C++20 since added extern "C++" semantics that can be used for such compatibility. The demangler now demangles symbols with named module attachment.

C++2b Feature Support

CUDA Language Changes in Clang

Objective-C Language Changes in Clang

OpenCL C Language Changes in Clang

ABI Changes in Clang

OpenMP Support in Clang

CUDA Support in Clang

X86 Support in Clang

DWARF Support in Clang

Arm and AArch64 Support in Clang

Floating Point Support in Clang

Internal API Changes

  • A new sugar Type AST node represents types accessed via a C++ using declaration. Given code using std::error_code; error_code x;, x has a UsingType which desugars to the previous RecordType.

  • Added a new attribute flag AcceptsExprPack that when set allows expression pack expansions in the parsed arguments of the corresponding attribute. Additionally it introduces delaying of attribute arguments, adding common handling for creating attributes that cannot be fully initialized prior to template instantiation.

Build System Changes

  • CMake -DCLANG_DEFAULT_PIE_ON_LINUX=ON is now the default. This is used by linux-gnu systems to decide whether -fPIE -pie is the default (instead of -fno-pic -no-pie). This matches GCC installations on many Linux distros. Note: linux-android and linux-musl always default to -fPIE -pie, ignoring this variable. -DCLANG_DEFAULT_PIE_ON_LINUX may be removed in the future.

AST Matchers

  • Expanded isInline narrowing matcher to support c++17 inline variables.

clang-format

  • Important change: Renamed IndentRequires to IndentRequiresClause and changed the default for all styles from false to true.

  • Reworked and improved handling of concepts and requires. Added the RequiresClausePosition option as part of that.

  • Changed BreakBeforeConceptDeclarations from Boolean to an enum.

  • Option InsertBraces has been added to insert optional braces after control statements.

libclang

Static Analyzer

Undefined Behavior Sanitizer (UBSan)

Core Analysis Improvements

New Issues Found

Python Binding Changes

The following methods have been added:

Significant Known Problems

Additional Information

A wide variety of additional information is available on the Clang web page. The web page contains versions of the API documentation which are up-to-date with the Git version of the source code. You can access versions of these documents specific to this release by going into the “clang/docs/” directory in the Clang tree.

If you have any questions or comments about Clang, please feel free to contact us via the mailing list.