Deep Neural Network Library (DNNL)  1.2.0
Performance library for Deep Learning
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Primitive Attributes: Scratchpad

Some primitives might require a temporary buffer while performing their computations. For instance, the operations that do not have enough independent work to utilize all cores on a system might use parallelization over the reduction axis (e.g. k-axis in matrix-matrix multiplication). In this case the threads compute partial results in a temporary buffer and once finished the library reduces partial results into the final one. Another example is a convolution implementation that uses GEMM. Before using a GEMM the source images needs to be rearranged by so-called im2col transformation. The transformation happens in a temporary buffer that is then used as an input for GEMM.

In both of these examples, the temporary buffer is no longer required once the primitive computation is completed. DNNL refers to such a memory buffer as a scratchpad.

Warning
Do not confuse scratchpad with Workspace. The workspace is a buffer that is shared between forward and backward propagation of a primitive (hence must be preserved between the calls) and is used only in training.

The amount of space required for the scratchpad depends on the primitive and its actual implementation. For example, the GEMM-based convolution requires a scratchpad for the im2col data, while the direct convolution does not.

Both types of implementation might need extra space for the reduction in case there are too few independent tasks. The im2col size is proportional to the size of the source image multiplied by the weights spatial size. The size of a buffer for reduction is proportional to the tensor size to be reduced (e.g., diff_weights in the case of backward by weights) multiplied by the number of threads in the reduction groups (the upper bound is the overall number of threads).

By contrast, some other primitives might require very little extra space. For instance, one of the implementation of the dnnl::sum primitive requires temporary space only to store the pointers to data for each and every input array (that is, the size of the scratchpad is n * sizeof(void *), where n is the number of summands).

DNNL supports two modes for handling scratchpads:

  1. dnnl::scratchpad_mode::library. The library allocates memory for each primitive during its creation. This is the default behavior which enables user to not worry about the scratchpad at all. The scratchpad management policy can be configured at compile-time using the DNNL_ENABLE_CONCURRENT_EXEC (Build Options) cmake option.
    • When DNNL_ENABLE_CONCURRENT_EXEC=OFF (default), a global scratchpad memory is shared across primitives. This mode minimizes the amount of memory needed for scratchpads at the application level. The global scratchpad is freed when all the primitives referencing it are destroyed.
      Warning
      In this mode, primitives can be created and executed in parallel but must be executed in the same thread they were created in. Executing primitives in a different thread than the one they were created in will result in segmentation fault. If you might execute a primitive in a thread different than the one it was created in, consider using dnnl::scratchpad_mode::user or DNNL_ENABLE_CONCURRENT_EXEC=ON.
    • When DNNL_ENABLE_CONCURRENT_EXEC=ON, each primitive allocates its own private scratchpad memory. The scratchpad memory is freed when its primitive is destroyed. This mode can lead to larger memory footprint when compared to DNNL_ENABLE_CONCURRENT_EXEC=OFF.
      Warning
      In this mode, primitives can be created in one thread and executed in another. Also, different primitives can be run concurrently. If the same primitive is run from two different threads concurrently, the library will return incorrect results. If you might run the same primitive in two threads concurrently, consider using dnnl::scratchpad_mode::user or DNNL_ENABLE_CONCURRENT_EXEC=OFF.
  2. dnnl::scratchpad_mode::user. A user provides scratchpad memory that has sufficient space at primitive execution (using the DNNL_ARG_SCRATCHPAD tag). This enables the user to reuse the memory as well as to make the primitives thread-safe. However, this requires a good memory manager (in terms of speed and locality) on the user's side.
Warning
Primitives are not thread-safe by default. The only way to make the primitive execution fully thread-safe is to use the dnnl::scratchpad_mode::user mode and not pass the same scratchpad memory to two primitives that are executed concurrently.

The scratchpad mode is controlled though the dnnl_primitive_attr_set_scratchpad_mode (C API) and dnnl::primitive_attr::set_scratchpad_mode (C++ API) primitive attributes, and should be passed during the primitive descriptor creation (Primitive Attributes).

It is worth mentioning that all primitives support both scratchpad modes. That is, primitive descriptor creation success or failure cannot depend on the scratchpad mode used.

Scratchpad Memory Engine

If the user provides scratchpad memory to a primitive, this memory must be created using the same engine that the primitive uses.

Examples

Library Manages Scratchpad

As mentioned above, this is a default behavior. We only want to highlight how a user can query the amount of memory consumed by a primitive due to a scratchpad.

// Use default attr, hence the library allocates scratchpad
dnnl::primitive::primitive_desc op_pd(params, ...);
// Print how much memory would be hold by a primitive due to scratchpad
std::cout << "primitive will use "
<< " bytes" << std::endl;
// In this case scratchpad is internal, hence user visible scratchpad memory
// descriptor should be empty:
auto zero_md = dnnl::memory::desc();
assert(op_pd.scratchpad_desc() == zero_md);

User Manages Scratchpad

// Create an empty (default) attributes
// Default scratchpad mode is `library`:
// Set scratchpad mode to `user`
// Create a primitive descriptor with custom attributes
dnnl::primitive::primitive_desc op_pd(op_d, attr, engine);
// Query the scratchpad memory descriptor
dnnl::memory::desc scratchpad_md = op_pd.scratchpad_desc();
// Note, that a primitive doesn't consume memory in this configuration:
assert(op_pd.query_s64(dnnl::query::memory_consumption_s64) == 0);
// Create a primitive
dnnl::primitive prim(op_pd);
// ...
// Create a scratchpad memory
// NOTE: if scratchpad is not required for a particular primitive the
// scratchpad_md.get_size() will return 0. It is fine to have
// scratchpad_ptr == nullptr in this case.
void *scratchpad_ptr = user_memory_manager::allocate(scratchpad_md.get_size());
// NOTE: engine here must much the engine of the primitive
dnnl::memory scratchpad(scratchpad_md, engine, scratchpad_ptr);
// Pass a scratchpad memory to a primitive
prim.execute(stream, {
...,
{DNNL_ARG_SCRATCHPAD, scratchpad}});